training specialists to the upstream oil and gas industry

Pore Pressure and Fracture Gradient Prediction

Book now button

Course overview

This course covers the petrophysical (logs LWD), geophysical (seismic gravity magnetic) and Engineering methods and techniques required to confidently predict the Pore Pressures and Fracture Gradients of the geological formations to be encountered during the drilling of exploration appraisal and development wells, both onshore & offshore. The pore pressure prediction (PPP) course will assist during the planning stage of a well design for the Drilling Fluids Programme, the Casing Programme as well as estimating the reserves and resources by knowing the reservoir pressure of the target geological formation or horizon before drilling.

The course is designed for

  • Drilling Engineers
  • Reservoir Engineers
  • Seismic Interpreters
  • Asset Managers
  • Exploration Geophysicists
  • Data Processing Geophysicists
  • Exploration Geologists
  • Development Geologists
  • Petrophysicists
  • Others who will be involved in the planning and drilling of exploration, appraisal and development wells such as Drilling Fluids Engineer, Mud Logger etc.

Course outline

Direct Detection Methods

Pressure gages
Drill-stem tests (DST)
Wireline Formation Tests (RFT, MDT, FIT, LOT)

Drilling Methods for PPP

Real-time PPP
Drilling rate (ROP)
d-exponent / Corrected or modified d-exponent
d-exponent Shift Changes & Limitations
Bit Type and Wear
Fluid Hydraulics
Drilling porosity logs
Formation Pressure logs
Torque, Drag & Over-pull
Shale cuttings
Shale factor
Volume, shape, size of cuttings
Real-time Indicators
Significant Parameter Changes
Directional Drilling
Tripping Indicators
Lagged Indicators
Background Gas Trends
Sealed Overpressure
Transitional Overpressure
Connection Gas
Geothermal Gradient
Flowline Temperature
Delta T
Analysis of Drilled Cuttings
Shale Density
PPP Software

Petrophysics Review

Sonic logs / Acoustic logs
Density Logs
Neutron logs
Resistivity logs
NMR logs
MWD / LWD logs
Caliper Logs

Petrophysical Methods for PPP

Resistivity logs (resistivity, conductivity, Shale FF, salinity)
Sonic / acoustic logs (slowness)
Bulk density logs (FDT)
Hydrogen Index (CNL)
Nuclear Magnet resonance logs (NMR)
Thermal Neutron Capture Cross-section (TDT)
Down-hole gravity data
Sonic Transit Time (ITT)
Density Porosity
Neutron Porosity
Gamma Ray Wireline Examples

Geophysical Methods for PPP

VSP / Inverse VSP

Petroleum Geology Review

General PP Theory & Calculation Methods
Reservoir rocks
Reservoir rock properties
Reservoir fluids
Non-reservoir rocks
Water Saturation
Bulk Density
Structure of Petroleum Reservoirs
Pressure Gradients
Hydrostatic Pressure
Formation Pressure
Fracture Pressure
Overburden Stress
Direct Pressure Measurements
Repeat Formation Test
Drill Stem Tests (DST)
Indirect Pressure Measurements
Kick Shut-in Pressures
Connection Gases
Leak-off Tests (LOT)
Formation Injectivity Tests (FIT)
Determination of Bulk Density
Bulk Density from Cuttings
Bulk Density from Sonic Logs
Calculation of Overburden Gradient
Balancing Wellbore Pressures
Mud Hydrostatic
Equivalent Circulating Density (ECD)
Surge Pressures
Swab Pressures
Kick Tolerance
Kick Tolerance example

Abnormal Pressure Theory

Fracture gradients
Pressure profiles
Effective stress law
Relation of Porosity & lithology to effective stress
Eaton´s Method
Poissons from Shaliness Index
Daines Method

Origin and Causes of Abnormal Pressures

Tectonic Movements
Compaction and un-compaction (mechanical)
Compaction and un-compaction (chemical)
Clay Diagenesis
Thermal expansion
Thermal cracking of Hydrocarbons
Detection of abnormal pressures before drilling
Detection of abnormal pressures during drilling
Detection of abnormal pressures after drilling
Under-pressured Formations
Reductions in Confining Pressure or Fluid Volume
Apparent Under-pressure
Overpressure Requirements
Overpressure Model
Fluid Type
Causes of Overpressure
Overburden Effect
Tectonic Loading
Deltaic Environments
Diapirism & Salt Domes
Increases in Fluid Volume
Clay Diagenesis
Gypsum Dehydration
Hydrocarbon or Methane Generation
Aquathermal Expansion
Hydrostatic causes
Hydraulic Head
Hydrocarbon Reservoirs


Location Start Date End Date Cost Trainer Book
Upon request       Bjorn Birkeland  Make enquiry

^ Top


"Demonstrations with software were very useful."
- Chubu, Japan

Website: Studio Beam Ltd